Apply These Secret WAYS TO Improve Pregnancy Loss And Chromosome Testing For Miscarriages

Although most couples are blissfully unacquainted with the statistics surrounding miscarriage, pregnancy loss is in fact quite common, with 10-25% of recognized pregnancies ending in miscarriage. Assuming you have suffered a pregnancy loss or are currently in the process of having a miscarriage, you may be wondering what caused losing and worry about whether it will happen again. This short article aims to answer the next questions:

What causes miscarriage?
How common is pregnancy loss?
Which kind of genetic testing is available for miscarriage tissue?
How do chromosome testing help?
Causes of Miscarriage

There are many different reasons why miscarriage occurs, but the most typical cause for first trimester miscarriage is a chromosome abnormality. Chromosome abnormalities – extra or missing whole chromosomes, also known as “aneuploidy” – occur because of a mis-division of the chromosomes in the egg or sperm involved with a conception. Typically, humans have 46 chromosomes which come in 23 pairs (22 pairs numbered from 1 to 22 and the sex chromosomes, X and Y). For a baby to develop normally it is crucial that it have the right quantity of chromosome material; missing or extra material during conception or in an embryo or fetus can cause a woman to either not get pregnant, miscarry, or have a baby with a chromosome syndrome such as Down syndrome.

Over 50% of all first trimester miscarriages are caused by chromosome abnormalities. This number may be closer to 75% or higher for women aged 35 years and over who’ve experienced recurrent pregnancy loss. Overall, the rate of chromosome abnormalities and the rate of miscarriage both increase with maternal age, with a steep upsurge in women older than 35.

Pregnancy Loss – How Common is it?

Miscarriage is a lot more common than most people think. Up to one in every four recognized pregnancies is lost in first trimester miscarriage. The opportunity of experiencing a miscarriage also increases as a mother ages.

Most women who experience a miscarriage go on to get a healthy pregnancy and never miscarry again. However, some women seem to be more prone to miscarriage than others. About five percent of fertile couples will experience two or more miscarriages.

Of note, the rate of miscarriage appears to be increasing. One reason for this may be awareness – more women know they are having a miscarriage because home pregnancy tests have improved early pregnancy detection rates over the past decade, whereas in the past the miscarriage would have appeared to be just a unique period. Another reason could be that more women are conceiving at older ages.

Types of Genetic Testing Helpful for Miscarriages

Genetic testing actually refers to many different types of testing that can be done on the DNA in a cell. For miscarriage tissue, also called products of conception (POC), probably the most useful type of test to execute is a chromosome analysis. A chromosome analysis (also known as chromosome testing) can examine all 23 pairs of chromosomes for the current presence of extra or missing chromosome material (aneuploidy). Because so many miscarriages are caused by aneuploidy, chromosome analysis on the miscarriage tissue could identify the reason for the pregnancy loss.

The most common method of chromosome analysis is called karyotyping. Newer methods include advanced technologies such as microarrays.

Karyotyping analyzes all 23 pairs of chromosome but requires cells from the miscarriage tissue to first be grown in the laboratory, an activity called “cell culture”. For that reason requirement, tissue that is passed at home is often unable to be tested with this method. About 20% or even more of miscarriage samples neglect to grow and thus no results are available. Additionally, karyotyping struggles to tell the difference between cells from the mother (maternal cells) and cells from the fetus. In case a normal female result is found, it may be the right result for the fetus or it might be maternal cell contamination (MCC) in which the result actually comes from testing the mother’s cells present in the pregnancy tissue rather than the fetal cells. MCC appears to occur in about 30% or more of the samples tested by traditional karyotype. Results from karyotyping usually have a few weeks to months another from the laboratory.

Microarray testing is a new type of genetic testing done on miscarriage samples; both most common forms of microarray testing are array CGH (comparative genomic hybridization) and chromosome SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphism) microarray. Microarray testing can be able to test all 23 pairs of chromosomes for aneuploidy, but will not require cell culture. Therefore, you are more prone to receive results and the results are usually returned faster when microarray testing is used. Additionally, some laboratories are collecting an example of the mother’s blood concurrently the miscarriage tissue is delivered to enable immediate detection of maternal cell contamination (MCC).

Chromosome Testing – How do it help?

If a chromosome abnormality is identified, the kind of abnormality found could be assessed to help answer fully the question: “Will this eventually me again?”. miscarriage More often than not, chromosome abnormalities within an embryo or fetus aren’t inherited and have a low chance to occur in future pregnancies. Sometimes, a particular chromosome finding in a miscarriage alerts your doctor to do further studies to research the chance of an underlying genetic or chromosome problem in your loved ones that predisposes you to have miscarriages.

Furthermore, in case a chromosome abnormality is identified it could prevent the need for other, sometimes quite costly, studies your physician might consider to investigate the cause of the miscarriage.

Lastly, knowing the reason behind a pregnancy loss might help a couple of start the emotional healing up process, moving at night question of “Why did this eventually me?”.

Chromosome testing can be especially important for patients with repeated miscarriages, as it can either give clues to an underlying chromosomal cause for the miscarriages or rule out chromosome errors as the reason for the miscarriages and invite their doctor to pursue other styles of testing. For couples with multiple miscarriages determined to have a chromosomal cause, in vitro fertilization (IVF) with preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) testing may be able to help increase their likelihood of having a successful healthy pregnancy.